Note 3 If it ain't broke don't fix it. Why Hal's PV is a waste of time and certainly should not be put forth as a plausible route to practical metric engineering of Warp, Wormhole and Weapon W^3 (UFO high strangeness).
"We see that, despite some people's worries about energy conservation, general relativity has some very remarkable observational confirmations." Penrose p. 467
3.1.1 "the gravitational waves emitted by the remarkable double-neutron-star system known as PSR 1913 + 16 ... This system, has now been observed over a period of some 25 years, and its detailed motion has been tracked to great precision (which is possible because one of the stars is a pulsar which emits very precisely timed electromagnetic 'blips' some 17 times a second). The timing of these signals is so precise and the system itself so 'clean', that comparison between observation and theoretical expectation provides a confirmation of Einstein's general relativity to about one part in 10^12, an accuracy unprecedented in the scientific comparison between the observation of a particular system and theory. This figure refers to the overall timing precision over a period of more than 20 years." p. 466 Penrose "The Road to Reality"
3.1.2 Now it should be perfectly obvious that anyone who comes along today and claims that Einstein's theory of gravity has some fundamental conceptual flaws in its battle-tested domain of intended validity is immediately marked as a crank by the top people in the field - the keynote speakers at GR 17 for example. One must admit these top people have a strong case. On Hal's PV model, that Mike Ibison, who works with Hal, says is not compatible with general coordinate covariance and the tensor method and does not give the right answer for PSR 1913 + 16.
3.1.3 "But there is another reason, apart from just organizing complication, that the tensor calculus plays such a fundamental role in Einstein's theory. This goes back to the foundational principle of equivalence which started Einstein's whole line of thinking. Gravitation is not to be regarded as a force: for to an observer who is falling freely ... there is no gravitational force to be felt. Instead, gravitation manifests in the form of space-time curvature. Now it is important, if this idea is to work, that there be no 'preferred coordinates' in the theory."
3.1.4 "Theory" here means the local Euler-Lagrange dynamical field equations from a critical point in the action functional in the space of "paths" (Feynman approach). It is well known that particular vacuum solutions can spontaneous break a continuous symmetry and this is indeed the case in the FRW cosmology that does describe our large-scale universe to the amazing current precision of 2% and that can be expected to shrink with new space experiments. Our thermodynamically adiabatically expanding (Hubble redshift) accelerating (Type 1a supernovae) universe has a Hubble flow, i.e., a preferred operational state of rest in which the cosmic black body background radiation stretched out remnant, from the decoupling of photons to electrons 380,000 years after the Big Bang, now at a temperature of ~ 2.7 deg K, is isotropic to temperature fluctuations to 10^-5 (NASA WMAP Space Probe). Absolute time and absolute velocity measurements relative to this Hubble flow are now routine and provide the basis for the reliable navigation of our coming warp drive Space Navy as we fulfill our Manifest Destiny Matrix Out There in the Never-Ending High Frontier of the Infinity of Worlds in Super Cosmos.
3.1.5 NASA Pioneer 10/11 space probe blue shift acceleration pointing back to the Sun.
In my theory Einstein's gravity in the exotic vacuum is
126.96.36.199 Guv + /\zpfguv = 0
which in the Galilean-Newtonian limit is the static Poisson equation
Grad^2Vzpf = c^2/\zpf
emerges from a macro-quantum vacuum condensate "Higgs Ocean". We only need the S-wave term in the multipole expansion of the Green's function solution for the toy models below.
188.8.131.52 The data shows a zero point energy exotic vacuum hedgehog point defect in the single-valued Higgs Ocean local order parameter pinned at the center of the Sun. The hedgehog is two concentric spheres, in this case with center at the Sun. The first one starts at ~ 20 AU at Uranus orbit. We do not yet know the radius of the outer sphere. There is no exotic /\zpg zero point dark energy density inside our solar system out to 20 AU. The hedgehog has a constant gradient flow between the two spheres. This is well known to soft-condensed matter physicists. Indeed, the dark energy density distribution between the two spheres is simply
/\zpf(Solar Hedgehog) = H(t)/cr
Where H(t) is the FRW Hubble parameter
H(t) = R(t)^-1dR(t)/dt
t = FRW cosmic time (conveniently defined) and R(t) is the dimensionless FRW scale factor of expanding accelerating 3D space.
The exotic vacuum gravity potential energy per unit test particle mass in this weak field limit of GR is
Vzpf(Solar Hedgehog) = c^2/\zpfr^2 = cHr = c(Hubble recession speed)
The observed anomalous Pioneer acceleration back to the Sun is then
a_P ~ cH(t) ~ 10^-7 cm/sec^2
184.108.40.206 Note the galactic halo with a flat stellar rotational curve has
a = v^2/r
where tangential v is constant.
Vzpf(Galactic Halo) = c^2/\zpfr^2 = ar = v^2
/\zpf(Galactic Halo) = (v/c)^2(1/r)^2
220.127.116.11 If the universe is a hologram in the sense of t-Hooft and Susskind then the entropy of the universe is simply
S(Universe) = (kB/4)R(t)^2
kB is Boltzman's constant and 1/4 comes from Hawking's formula for black hole entropy.
R(t) is the dimensionless FRW scale factor.
Note that the entropy of the post-inflationary Universe is zero at the Big Bang.
This explains WHY the Arrow of Time for the irreversibility of the Second Law of Thermodynamics points the same way as the expansion of space of the Universe.
My Father's House has Many Universes.
3.1.6 Active Diff(4) symmetry implies an infinity of parallel universes next door!
Remembering that Penrose is talking about the structure of the local partial differential equations of the c-number field theory (that's all we need for Feynman's path integral quantum field theory as well) and not certain special solutions with certain kinds of Killing vector fields: "if a limited class of coordinate systems were taken to be Nature's preferred choices, then these would define 'natural observer systems' with respect to which the notion of 'gravitational force' could be re-introduced, and the central role of the principle of equivalence would be lost. The point is, in fact, a rather delicate one ... it is essential for the spirit of Einstein's theory that this notion of coordinate independence be maintained. This is what is referred to as the principle of general covariance. It tells us not only that there are to be no preferred coordinates, but also that, if we have two different space-times, representing two physically distinct gravitational fields, then there is to be no naturally preferred pointwise identification between the two - so we cannot say which particular spacetime point of one is to be regarded as the same point as some particular spacetime point of the other!" p. 459
Here Penrose gives an excellent definition of parallel interpenetrating universes of the IT kind not the BIT worlds of Everett and Deutsch BTW. This is quite "classical" actually "macro-quantum" and has nothing to do with the Hawking-Hartle "Wave Function of The Universe".
3.1.7 I was told by someone of great stature in the field (close to Penrose) at GR 17 that Hal knows well who has read Hal's work "It's not right, don't waste your time on it." Kit Green says he got an opposite opinion from a Nobel Prize physicist. I would like to know who. This is more than abstract theory because the UFO data is of immense long-term national security importance. The recent shut down of NIDS is also most curious. The UFO "high-strangeness" discussed by Jacques Vallee and Eric Davis on the NIDS website cannot be ignored although Eric Davis, with USAF connections, trying to explain it using Hal's PV ideas is a serious blunder in my opinion and gets a certain part of the US Intelligence Community looking in the wrong direction sort of like what happened in Iraq on WMD.
Problems: 3.1.A How does Puthoff's PV theory get the two transverse oscillating stretch-squeeze tidal polarization modes for gravity waves?
3.1.B How does Puthoff's PV theory describe the gravimagnetism (Lense-Thirring frame drag) of a gyroscope - now seen experimentally?
3.2 Also a quick comment on Fontana's idea presented at Paul Murad's STAIF Pow Wow in Roswell Country:
On Oct 24, 2004, at 7:06 AM, Gary S. Bekkum wrote:
Design of a Quantum Source of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGW) and Test Methodology
Authors: Giorgio Fontana
Comments: CP699, Space Technology and Applications International Forum-STAIF 2004, proceedings published by AIP and edited by M.S. El-Genk
Subj-class: General Physics
The generation of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGW) has been identified as the required breakthrough that will lead to new forms of space propulsion. Many techniques have been devised to generate HFGW, but most of them exhibit marginal efficiency, therefore the power emitted in form of gravitational waves (GW) is orders of magnitude lower than the input power. The gravitational wave counterpart of the LASER, termed Gravitational-wave LASER or "GASER" is the quantum approach to the efficient generation of gravitational waves. Electrons, protons, muons, etc, all have charge and mass, if accelerated they usually lose energy through the very fast electric and magnetic channels, this causes a negligible emission through the gravitational channel. Quantum systems can be engineered to forbid electric and magnetic transitions, therefore the gravitational spin-2 transitions can take place. A class of active materials, suitable for making a GASER based on electronic transitions in the solid state, is identified along with their relevant physical properties. Means for creating coherence and population inversion and means to increase the emission probability are described. The expected performances of the device are derived from quantum gravitational theories. Additional properties of the active materials are considered to enforce the theoretical foundation of the device. A proof-of-concept device, operating at about 1 THz, is described. Experiments are proposed as a natural starting point of the research.
This appears to be highly implausible because for "bodies ... in motion, in orbit about one another ... gravitational waves - ripples in the fabric of spacetime - will emanate and carry positive energy away ... In normal circumstances, this energy loss will be very small. For example, the largest such effect in our own solar system arises from the Jupiter-Sun system, and the rate of energy loss is only about that emitted by a 40-watt bulb." Penrose p. 465
OK, but what about Ray Chiao's superconducting gravi-magnetic/electromagnetic transducer effect. Even with that it's hard to see how HFGW could lift a 30 foot flying saucer before we even get to Super Carrier Class Star Ships.
Podkletnov and Ning Li making claims with the support of Modanese. Wait and see. Millis from NASA BPP not optimistic.
Hard to see how even a GASER could have a large enough propulsive effect. Even if it did, this would be a tidal stretch-squeeze and it is hard to see how this can translate into a zero-g force "near metric field" Alcubierre warp drive with zero time dilation and effective global faster than light capability (locally the ship is on a timelike geodesic with no causality violation). One loophole is the idea that space-time gets soft at small scales beginning in the nanometer 10^-7 cm needed for practical metric engineering. That is the "string tension" (c^4/G) must get weaker. IF Hal Puthoff's PV could be salvaged by getting rid of that exponential isotropic stumbling block, then c getting smaller would help. This does happen in a BEC of course. Hal, of course, wants c to get bigger, which is going the wrong way down a one-way street. Of course my exotic vacuum /\zpf idea is an entirely different approach to any of those above.
That said, let's continue.
Fig. 19.8 p. 465 is a nice example of the inherent nonlocality of the negative gravity potential energy that persists in Einstein's GR and is not only a property of its Newtonian limit as is sometimes falsely claimed.
"We see that, despite some people's worries about energy conservation, general relativity has some very remarkable observational confirmations. ... Gravitational energy is a genuinely non-local quantity. This does not imply that there is no mathematical description of gravitational energy, however ... we do not yet have a complete understanding of gravitational mass/energy, there is an important class of situations in which a very complete answer can be given. These situations are ... asymptotically flat, and they refer to gravitating systems that may be regarded as being isolated from the rest of the universe, essentially because of their very large distance from everything else." p. 467
*Paul, note as I said this is what Pauli means by a "closed system", i.e. asymptotically flat!
"The work of Hermann Bondi ... generalized by Rayner Sachs provided a clear-cut mathematical accounting for the mass-energy carried away from such a system in the form of gravitational waves, and a conservation law was achieved ... This conservation law does not have the local character of that for non-gravitational fields, as manifested in ..."
Tab(Matter)^;b = 0 REAL LOCALLY CURVED SPACE-TIME REPRESENTATION ;b = GCT covariant derivative
Tab(Matter)^,b + tab(Matter<->Geometry)^,b = 0 VIRTUAL GLOBALLY FLAT SPACE-TIME REPRESENTATION ,b is Minkowski space-time ordinary partial derivative.
Note that tab(Matter-Geometry) is a good tensor in the VIRTUAL POINCARE GROUP of GIF -> GIF' frame transformations of this fictitious space-time that Yilmaz and Hal Puthoff misinterpret as physically real.
tab(Matter<->Geometry) is NOT a Diff(4) GCT tensor of course.
tab(Matter<->Geometry) = 0 in the Diff(4) geodesic LIF.
tab(Matter<->Geometry) =/= 0 in the Diff(4) non-geodesic LNIF.
Do not at all confuse this with the completely separate equation from the Bianchi identities
Gab(Vacuum Geometry)^;b = 0
t*ab(Vacuum Geometry) = (c^4/8piG)Guv(Vacuum Geometry)
This splits into a matter-free really vacuum conformal part and a matter-induced Ricci part.
More on that later.