## Tuesday, August 31, 2004

Remember in thermodynamics

Pressure = -d(Internal Energy)/d(Volume)|fixed temperature etc..

If the pressure is positive, increase the volume decreases the internal energy.

If the pressure is negative, increase the volume increases the internal energy.

This means you need to do work to increase the volume!

In the case of the EVO charge cluster, the interior core of the shell of N electrons at radius

a ~ N^1/2(h/mc)

is exotic vacuum dark energy with negative pressure because

1. All virtual ZPF quanta have w = pressure/(energy density) = -1 NOT +1/3

2. Boson quantum statistics require positive virtual photon energy density, therefore negative pressure.

3. In Einstein gravity pressure dominates energy density by a factor of 3. Indeed, without that there would be no gravity lensing with the famous factor of 2.

4. Therefore, in dynamical equilibrium the repulsive N-electron Coulomb barrier does virtual work against the negative ZPF pressure inside the shell. The ZPF pressure is zero outside the shell in ordinary vacuum where /\zpf = 0. This is directly opposite to what Hal Puthoff proposes! Hal has positive ZPF pressure outside the shell with zero ZPF pressure inside the shell. I have the mirror image with negative ZPF pressure inside the shell and zero ZPF pressure outside the shell.

My balance equation, ignoring inessentials is simply

V = Repulsive Coulomb Self-Energy per electron mass of the N poly-electron spherical shell + Dark Energy ZPF Potential Energy per electron mass (dimension is (velocity)^2)

i.e.,

V = +(Ne)^2/mr + c^2/\zpfr^2

/\zpf > 0 is NEGATIVE ZPF PRESSURE

Equilibrium is at

dV/dr = 0 at r = a

Stability requires

d^2V/dr^2 > 0

Phase transition from a positive second derivative to a negative one releases dark energy as "cold fusion."
Energy is the exotic stuff of weightless warps, wide wormholes and weird weapons.